Background and Exile from ancient Israel

According to the Bible (Kings 02:17:06, Kings 02:18:11, Chronicles 01:05:26), the ten tribes were exiled to Halah and Havor and the river Gozan and to the cities of Maday (Media). According to the tradition of the Jews of Afghanistan, the river Gozan is ‘rod jichan’ (river in Persian is rod), one of the tributaries of the Emo-daria, which descends in the vicinity of the town of Maimane (current day Afghanistan). The city of Havor is, as they say, peh-Shauor (Pash-Havor’) which means ‘Over Havor’, and today serves as the centre of the Pathans of Pakistan. This whole area populated the ancient Assyrian Exile.

There are researchers who claim that all the Jews living in southern Russia and Central Asian states, along the Emor-daria’ are the descendants of the ten tribes – the Bucharins, etc.

As we know, a group of ”B’nei Yisrael’ some of whom settled in Israel, is also found in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The existence of the Pathan tribes is therefore in the heart of the area in which the ten tribes are found.

  • [http://av1611.com/kjbp/]
  • [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saadia_Gaon]
  • [Lost Tribes from Assyria” by A Avihail and A Brin, 1978]

Around 722 BC, Israeli civil war and changing strategic interests forced Assyria to deport ten tribes to the east, towards Persia (Iran). A hundred years later, the Babylonians deported the remaining tribe of Yehudah and some Benjaminites to Babylon (Iraq). The Yehudah returned to Israel with the help of Cyrus the great of Persia, but the other ten tribes never retuned.

The search for the “T en tribes of Israel” is a very controversial issue because their descendants lost most of their Israelite traditions and do not possess the T almud (Oral T orah similar to the hadith of the Muslims). Perhaps the focal point which has dissuaded Israelites from searching openly for their brethren is the Israelite civil war after King Solomon’s reign, which pitted Yehudah (Judah) against all the other tribes and eventually brought their collective downfall. Hence the descendants of the “Lost Tribes” have lived and spread in the lands east of Israel which are now known as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, India, Burma and even western China.

  • [Bani Israel in Pakistan; The Israeli History of the Pathan Tribes by Qazi Fazli Azeem.]

Rabbinic literature on the subject

Of various accounts on the subject, only rabbinic literature provides direct and indirect references on the subject before the conversion of the Pashtun people to Islam.

The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal describes referencing the Book of Tobit:

[Holy Book of Tobit: Tobit C XIV V 5-13.]

[Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 23, Issues 5-7 By James Sykes Gamble, Asiatic Society of Bengal page 570.]

“The Jews at this time followed the advice of the prophet tobit escaped from Nineveh by stealth where could they have found a more secure retreat than towards the east in the direction of the mountain tracts now inhabited by the Afghans.”

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 23, Issues 5-7 By James Sykes Gamble

According to the Tanach, after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom (circa 722 B.C.E.), several of the tribes that made up the Ten Lost Tribes, arrived in the region of the Gozan, the Hebrew pronunciation for the River Oxus and according to some for the Afghan city of Ghazni.

[Jewish communities in exotic places, Author: Ken Blady, Edition: illustrated, Publisher: Jason Aronson, 2000, ISBN: 0765761122, 9780765761125, Length: 422 pages, Page 197.]

[Forum on the Jewish people, Zionism and Israel , Volume 61, World Zionist Organization. Information Dept, , 1988 – Pages 41, 42 & 43.]

“…the Assyrian Exile were brought into Halah (modern day Balkh), and Habor (Pesh Habor or Peshawar), and Hara (Herat), and to the river Gozan (the Ammoo, also called Sehoon)…”.
[Tamerlane and the Jews, By Michael Shterenshis, Page xxiv.]
“..to Hara (Bokhara) and to the river of Gozan that is to say, the Amu, called by Europeans the Oxus….”.[The Kingdom of Afghanistan: a historical sketch, By George Passman Tate, Page 11.]

Rabbi Saadia Gaon (892—942), writer of the Bible’s Tafsir in Arabic considered the Assyrian Exile to be in modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran.

[Historia judaica: a journal of studies in Jewish history, especially in legal and economic history of the Jews, Volumes 7-8, Guido Kisch – Historia Judaica, 1945.]

[Geonica; The Geonim and Their Halakic Writings – page 59.]

[Jews in Islamic countries in the Middle Ages By Moshe Gil, David Strassler, Page 341.]

[The fire, the star and the cross: minority religions in medieval and early modern Iran – By Aptin Khanbaghi – Page 41.]

[Encyclopaedia Iranica , Volume 15, Issue 1 – Ehsan Yar-Shater – Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, 2009 – 112 pages.]

[The illustrated encyclopedia of medieval civilization, Aryeh Graboïs, Octopus, 1980 – 751 pages.]

Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela cites many large Jewish (Bani Israel) settlements in Media, Arachosia and Khurasan (Afghanistan).

[The Jewish quarterly review , Volume 1, Dropsie University, Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, Project Muse, Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, 1966.]

[Encyclopaedia Iranica , Volume 15, Issue 1, Ehsan Yar-Shater, Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, 2009 – 112 pages.]

[Hommage universel: actes du congrès de Shiraz 1971 et autres études rédigées à l’occasion du 2500e anniversaire de la fondation de l’empire Perse, Congress of Persian Studies (2, 1971, Šīrāz), Brill, 1974 – 444 pages – Page 300.]

Yahuda b. Bal’am, a noteworthy Rabbi and scholar of biblical knowledge put the “ten tribes” into Khorasan.

[Historia judaica: a journal of studies in Jewish history, especially in legal and economic history of the Jews, Volumes 7-8, Guido Kisch – Historia Judaica, 1945.]

Tanchum Jerushalmi (thirteenth century) explains II Kings, 18, 11 by saying “these are the cities in the land of Khorasan.

[Historia judaica: a journal of studies in Jewish history, especially in legal and economic history of the Jews, Volumes 7-8, Guido Kisch – Historia Judaica, 1945.]

Links between Afghanistan and the Holy Land

Moshe Gil writes in A history of Palestine:

[A history of Palestine, 634-1099 By Moshe Gil, Page 623.]

“People from distant Khurasan also reached Jerusalem.”

A history of Palestine, 634-1099, By Moshe Gil

 

Adele Berlin writes in Biblical poetry through Medieval Jewish eyes:

[Biblical poetry through Medieval Jewish eyes, Adele Berlin, Indiana University Press, 1991 – 205 pages.]

“Jacob as gaon of Sura, while Saadia conferred the exilarchate on David’s brother Hasan (Josiah; 930). Hasan was forced to flee, and died in exile in Khorasan ;”

Biblical poetry through Medieval Jewish eyes

 

Historical texts also indicate that Khurasan contributed heavily to tithes to the Holy Land.

[Saadia anniversary volume, American Academy for Jewish Research, The Press of the Jewish Publication Society, 1943 – 346 pages.]

[Texts and studies , Volume 2, American Academy for Jewish Research, Press of the Jewish publication society, 1943.]

[Ancient and medieval Jewish history: essays, Salo Wittmayer Baron, Rutgers University Press, 1972 – 588 pages.]

Conclusion

  • The biblical places of the refuge and exile of the Ten Lost Tribes in Media and Arachosia are therefore the regions which lie between Herat, Peshawar and the Oxus River.
  • Hara is Herat
  • Gozan is the river Oxus or Jehoon
  • Havor or Habor is Pesh-Havor or Peshawar.

These are exactly the ares which i modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan are the home and heartland of the Afghan (Pashtun/Pukhtun) people.

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About muslimbaniisrael

I want to share what researchers and historians say about the Afghans, the Muslim Bani Israel, my people.
This entry was posted in Abdali, Afghan, Afghan Tribes, Afghana, Afghanistan, Afghans, Afridi, Bani Israel, Bnai Israel, Durrani, Ephraim, Gad, Khattak, Khurasan, Kish, Malak, Manasseh, Muslim, Pakistan, Pashtoon, Pashtun, Pathan, Popalzai, Pukhtun, Qais Abdur Rashid, Ten Lost Tribes, Tribe of Joseph, Uncategorized, Yusufzai, Zazi and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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