.Note: References from books and texts are bulleted and italicized.
Afghana (born ~ 1000 BC), also known as Malak Afghana was according to Afghan (Pukhtun/Pashtun) tribal traditions a Bani Israel (Israelite) prince and is the legendary progenitor of the Pashtun people (Afghans).
- [Kharnam, Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia 2005, publisher Global Vision, isbn=978-8182200623, page=20]
- [Socio-economic Behaviour of Pukhtun Tribes By Dipali Saha, Dipali Saha – 2006 – 282 pages – Page 124]
- [India and the Afghans: a study of a neglected region, 1370-1576 A.D., Amrendra Kumar Thakur, Janaki Prakashan, 1992 – 231 pages, Covers the history of Bihar during the Afghan rule in India. Page 2 & 9]
- [Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan , Volume 22, Research Society of Pakistan, 1985 – Page 4]
- [Pukhtun economy and society: traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society, Akbar S. Ahmed, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980 – 406 pages – Page 128 & 129]
- [Niamatullah’s history of the Afghans , Volume 1, Niʻmat Allāh, Nirod Bhusan Roy, Santiniketan Press, 1958 – Page 5 & 9]
The word Afghan is considered to be derived from his name.
House of King Saul [Hazrat Talut]
According to the Tanakh, Saul was the son of Kish (Bible), of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve [12 Tribes of Israel].
- [ bibleverse |1|Samuel|9:1-2|, |1|Samuel|10:21|, |1|Samuel|14:51|, |Acts|13:21|]
He came from Gibeah.
- [A Dictionary of the Bible: Red-Sea-Zuzims edited by William Smith, William Smith – 1863 – Page 1151.]
Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz. They had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan (Samuel), Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth. Their daughters were named Merab and Michal.
[bibleverse|1|Samuel|14:51|] lists three sons – Jonathan, and Ishvi, and Malchi-shua – and the two daughters. But see also [bibleverse|2|Samuel|2:8| & |1|Chronicles|8:33|]
Saul also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth. [bibleverse|2|Samuel|21:8|]
Saul was slain at the Battle of Mount Gilboa [bibleverse|1|Samuel|31:3-6|, |1|Chronicles|10:3-6|], and was buried in Zelah, Judea, in the region of Benjamin in modern-day Israel. [bibleverse|2|Samuel|21:14|]
When Saul first became king, he followed Samuel’s bidding. Eventually, as Saul disobeyed God, God told Samuel to anoint a new king.
Afghan oral traditions, legends and Historian and scholars especially Muslim writers suggest that King Saul [Talut] had five sons not four. The fifth being Irmia (Jeremia).
- [A grammar of the Pukhto, Pushto, or Language of the Afgháns, By Henry George Raverty – – 1860 – 204 pages – page 6.]
- [Volume 13 of Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics – Editors: James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray – Publisher C. Scribner’s sons]
- [The rise of the Indo-Afghan empire, c.1710-1780 By Jos J. L. Gommans – 1995 – 219 pages – Page 164.]
- [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 23, Issues 5-7 By James Sykes Gamble, Asiatic Society of Bengal – 1855 – page 555.]
- [Origins and History of Jats and Other Allied Nomadic Tribes of India By B.S. Nijjar – B.S. Nijjar – 2007 – 440 pages – Page 421.]
- [The Calcutta Christian observer, Volume 1 – 1832 – page 294.]
- [Notes and queries , Volume 59 – William White – Oxford University Press, 1879.]
- [Jesus in India: Jesus’ deliverance from the cross & journey to India By G̲h̲ulām Aḥmad, Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian – 2003 – 160 pages – page 117.]
Afghana always referred to as Malak (Hebrew for leader or king). Malak Afghana was the grandson of king Saul (Talut). Afghana was the son of Irmia (Jeremia), and Irmia (Jeremia) in turn was the son of Saul (Talut).
It is mentioned that Afghana was orphaned at a young age, and brought up by king David. When Solomon became king, Afghana was promoted as the commander-in-chief of the army.
- [The Scripture gazetteer: a geographical, historical study, Volume 2, By William Fleming, p64.]
- [The Analytical review, or History of literature, domestic and foreign on an enlarged plan , Volume 25 – 1797 – Page 379.]
- [Illustrations of prophecy, By Joseph Lomas Towers – 1796 – 799 pages – page 590.]
- [The people of India By Herbert Risley, W. Crooke – 1999 – 472 pages – Page 64.]
- [The Century , Volume 30 – The Century Co., 1885.The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 8; Volume 30 – Making of America Project – Scribner & Co., 1885.]
Additionally, he is also credited with the building of the first temple [Beyt/Bayt al Muqaddis].
- [Pathan tribal patterns: an interim study of authoritarian family process and structure, Ruth Einsidler Newman, Foreign Studies Institute, 1965 – 111 pages.]
Malak Afghana, grandson of Malak (King) Saul (Talut) who was King Solomon’s Commander-in-Chief, and builder of his temple in BC 1005.
- [Pathan tribal patterns: an interim study of authoritarian family process and structure]
Rabbinic literature state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work [Seder Olam Rabbah], place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE. [Missing years (Jewish calendar) 165 years later than secular estimates].
- [ Eisen, Yosef. Miraculous journey: a complete history of the Jewish people from creation to the present pg. 56. Targum Press 2004, ISBN 1568713231]
The son of Berkia was Afghan (or Afghana), and the son of Irmia was …Afghana made frequent excursions to the mountains, ….
- [The Bible Cyclopedia: containing the biography, geography and study, Volume 2, By John Parker Lawson, p64.]
- [Olaf Caroe, The Pathans: 550 BC – AD 1957]
- [The first Afghan empire in India, 1451-1526 A. D. – Awadh Bihari Pandey – Bookland, 1956 – 320 pages – Page 35,36.]
- [The Sunday at home , Volume 25 – Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) – Religious Tract Society, 1878.]
- [Pakistan, the cultural heritage – Aḥmad Shujāʻ Pāshā – Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1998 – 191 pages – Page 33.]
- [Multān under the Afg̲h̲āns, 1752-1818 – Ashiq Muhammad Khān Durrani – Bazme Saqafat, 1981 – 199 pages.]
- [Pakistan journal of history and culture , Volume 1 – National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research (Pakistan) – National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, 1980.]
- [Cambridge anthropology , Volumes 22-23 – University of Cambridge. Dept. of Social Anthropology – Department of Social Anthropology, Cambridge University., 2001 – Page 89.]
According to Tadhkirat al-Muluk, Malik Afghan sought refuge and safe haven in the place known as Takht-i-Sulaiman and generations later, Qays ‘Abd al-Rashid a descendant of Malik Afghan embraced Islam.
- [Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society , Volume 39, Pakistan Historical Society, Pakistan Historical Society, 1991.]
- [Tadhkirat al-Muluk: A Manual of Safavid Administration, Translated by V. Minorsky, Publisher: Gibb Memorial Trust; 2nd edition (December 1, 1980) Language: English, ISBN 978-0906094129, Paperback: 360 pages.]
Qais Abdur Rashid
Qais Abdur Rashid (575 – 661) also known as Kesh, Qesh and Imraul Qais is the legendary ancestor of the Afghan (Pashtun) race, the first Ethnic Pashtun who travelled to[Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia during the early days of Islam.
- [http://www.pakhtun.com/index.php/about-pashtuns/origins-of-pashtuns/pashtun-origins?start=1 Claims About Origin], by Syed Zubir Rehman]
- [http://www.gl.iit.edu/govdocs/afghanistan/Religion.html Meaning and Practice], ”Afghanistan Country Study: Religion”, [[Illinois Institute of Technology]] (retrieved 18 January 2007).
Qais Abdur Rashid’s pedigree ascended in a series of thirty-seven degrees to King Talut (Saul) through Afghana.
- [Niamatullah’s history of the Afghans , Volume 1, Niʻmat Allāh, Nirod Bhusan Roy, Santiniketan Press, 1958.]
- [Census of India, 1901 , Volume 18, Part 1, India. Census Commissioner, Edward Albert Gait, Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India, 1902 – Page 88.]
- [Settling the frontier: land, law and society in the Peshawar valley, 1500-1900, Robert Nichols, Robert Nichols (PhD.), Oxford University Press, 2001 – 321 pages.]
- [The people of India, Sir Herbert Hope Risley, William Crooke, Oriental Books Reprint Corp.; exclusively distributed by Munshiram Manoharlal, 1969 – 472 pages – Page 64.]
- [Balochistan: land, history, people, Ihsan H. Nadiem, Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2007 – Balochistān (Pakistan) – 160 pages – Page 16.]
- [Pakistan pictorial, Pakistan Publications, 2003.]
- [Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India: Baluchistan and the first Afghan war, India. Army. Intelligence Branch, Nisa Traders : sole distributors, Gosha-e-Adab, 1979 – Page 19.]
- [Balochistan Through the Ages: Tribes, Baluchistan (Pakistan), Nisa Traders : sole distributors Gosha-e-Adab, 1979 – Page 104.]
- [Imperial gazetteer of India , Volume 5, Sir William Wilson Hunter, Great Britain. India Office, Clarendon Press, 1908.]
- [The guardians of the frontier: the Frontier Corps, N.W.F.P., Mohammad Nawaz Khan, Frontier Corps, North West Frontier Province, 1994 – 498 pages.]
According to legend, Malak Afghana after his death was buried in Ghowr, Afghanistan.
In other folklore however, Qais Abdur Rashid in his old age, when he felt his time was near, asked his sons, to bury him in the Sulaiman Mountains (Zhob) at the spot where his ancestor Malak Afghana was buried.
- [Balochistan: land, history, people, Ihsan H. Nadiem, Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2007 – – 160 pages, Page 16.]
- [Pakistan pictorial, Publisher: Pakistan Publications, 2003.]
[http://www.islamicrepublicofafghanistan.com/the-legendary-qais-abdur-rashid/ The Legendary Qais Abdur Rashid].
[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jan/17/israel-lost-tribes-pashtun Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel: Genetic study sets out to uncover if there is a 2,700-year-old link to Afghanistan and Pakistan].
[http://www.kulanu.org/pathan/israeliteorigins.html Pashtun Bani Israelite Origins].
[http://www.dangoor.com/74069.html Hebrew Pashtun Article 1].
[http://www.dangoor.com/74039.html Hebrew Pashtun Article 2].
Alden Oreck, [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Afghanistan.html The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Afghanistan] from Jewish Virtual Library.